## Energy, Entropy and Gibbs free Energy

Energy U and Entropy S are fundamental functionals on a simplicial complex equipped with a probability measure. Gibbs free energy U-S combines them and should lead to interesting minima.

Energy U and Entropy S are fundamental functionals on a simplicial complex equipped with a probability measure. Gibbs free energy U-S combines them and should lead to interesting minima.

Entropy is the most important functional in probability theory, Euler characteristic is the most important functional in topology. Similarly as the twins Apollo and Artemis displayed above they are closely related. Introduction This blog mentions some intriguing analogies between entropy and combinatorial notions. One can push the analogy in an other direction and compare random variables with simplicial complexes, Shannon … ….

An experimental observation : the sum over all Green function values is the Euler characteristic. There seems to be a Gauss-Bonnet connection.

The sphere spectrum paper is submitted to the ArXiv. A local copy. It is an addition to the unimodularity theorem and solves part of the riddle about the Green function values, the diagonal elements of the inverse of the matrix 1+A’ where A’ is the adjacency matrix of the connection graph of the simplicial complex. The paper contains two main … ….

What happens with the spectrum of the Laplacian if we add some graphs or simplicial complexes? (I owe this question to An Huang). Here is an example, where we sum a circular graph G=C4 and a star graph H=S4. The Laplace spectrum of G is {4,2,2,0}, the spectrum of H is {5,1,1,1,0}. The spectrum of G+H is {9, 9, 9, … ….

Assuming the join operation to be the addition, we found a multiplication which produces a ring of oriented networks. We have a commutative ring in which the empty graph is the zero element and the one point graph is the one element. This ring contains the usual integers as a subring. In the form of positive and negative complete subgraphs.

The join operation on graphs produces a monoid on which one can ask whether there exists an analogue of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. The join operation mirrors the corresponding join operation in the continuum. It leaves spheres invariant. We prove the existence of infinitely many primes in each dimension and also establish Euclid’s lemma, the existence of prime factorizations. An important open question is whether there is a fundamental theorem of arithmetic for graphs.

This is a research in progress note while finding a proof of a conjecture formulated in the unimodularity theorem paper.

During the summer and fall of 2016, Annie Rak did some URAF (a program formerly called HCRP) on partial differential equations on graphs. It led to a senior thesis in the applied mathematics department. Here is a project page and here [PDF] were some notes from the summer. The research of Annie mostly dealt with advection models on directed graphs … ….

Here are some slides about the paper. By the way, an appendix of the paper contains all the code for experimenting with the structures. To copy paste the code, one has to wait for the ArXiv version, where the LaTeX source is always included. Here is the unimodularity theorem again in a nutshell: Given a finite abstract simplicial complex G, … ….