The following picture illustrates the Euler and Fredholm theme in the special case of the prime graphs introduced in the Counting and Cohomology paper. The story there only dealt with the Euler characteristic, an additive valuation (in the sense of Klain and Rota). Since then, the work on the Fredholm characteristic has made more progress and is now understood. The … ….
The unimodularity theorem equates a fredholm determinant with a product of indices. It originally was formulated for graphs or simplicial complexes. It turns out to be valid for more general structures, generalized cellular complexes. While for discrete CW complexes, the fredholm determinant is 1 or -1, in general it can now take more general values but the structures are also more strange: in the continuum much more general than CW complexes as the attached cells do not need to be bound by spheres but can be rather arbitrary.
The standard model of particle physics is not so pretty, but it is successful. Many lose ends and major big questions remain: is there a grand unified gauge group? Why are there three generations of particles? Why do neutrini oscillate? How is general relativity included? (See for example page 540 in Woit’s online monograph). When experimenting with quaternion primes, especially … ….
Traditional calculus often mixes up different spaces, mostly due to pedagogical reasons. Its a bit like function overload in programming but there is a prize to be payed and this includes confusions when doing things in the discrete. Here are some examples: while in linear algebra we consider row and column vectors, in multivariable calculus, we only look at one … ….